Saturday, August 24, 2019
Foreign direct investment and Employment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Foreign direct investment and Employment - Essay Example Mirza (1998) states that movement of labor and links with domestic subcontractors enable transmission of business culture, which involves corporate values, organizational structures and management practices (qtd. in Mickiewicz et al. 2000, p. 5). Michalet (1997, p.1) tells that over the last two decades, more and more developing countries have changed their attitude towards foreign direct investments that instead of fearing, limiting or even banning the entities, they have not only welcomed it but are competing to attract them. Foreign direct investment is an important source of external finance in transitional economies particularly those in Central Europe (Lansbury et al. 1996, p.104) as it helps to cover the current account deficit, fiscal deficit [in case of privatization-related FDI], and supplements inadequate domestic resources to finance both ownership change and capital formation (Krkoska 2001, p.1). Since 1988, around 70 per cent of FDI in transitional economies has been channeled into these countries. Deutsche Bank Research (EU Monitor 2005, p.14) reports that foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) rose almost tenfold between 1994 and 2003 - from USD 20 bn to USD 197 bn. It also reported that in terms of FDI in relation to GDP, there was an impressive increase from 6.9 per cent to 33.2 per cent.1 Lansbury et al. also contend that FDIs may have played an important role in transforming the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe as FD Is provide an important source of investment for modernizing the industrial structure of these countries and improving the quality and reliability of infrastructure. Sader (2000, p.2) states that because public industrial structure have relatively low priority for cost-effectiveness and profit generation [which is the opposite for private firms], excess staffing and low-quality service provision results. FDIs, through private lenders and equity investors, provided infrastructure services around the world through full-scale privatization of public sector entities, the construction of new facilities with private capital on the basis of build-operate-transfer (BOT)-type investments, lease arrangements, and operation and management (O&M) contracts (Sader 2000, p.2). A study done by Dimelis and Lauri (2004) using Greek firms as samples confirms that an effect of foreign direct investment on host economies is increases in productive efficiency. Lansbury et al. add that new investments may also bring badly needed skills and technologies into the host economy. Evidences compiled by Lane (1994) in Hungary show that multinational firms had a higher propens ity to trade and invest than purely indigenous ones (qtd. in Lansbury et al. 1996, p.104). Foreign direct investment is important not only as generator of new employment but also as agent that can change the structure of employment in the direction that would be more favorable for a long-term growth of CEECs, that is, more likely to happen if FDI is diversified, according to Mickiewicz et al. (2000, p.7). In their study on the employment effects of FDI on four sample CEECs2, Mickiewicz et al. found out that foreign direct in
Friday, August 23, 2019
Firm Fixed Price Contract for Reno Municipality to outsource remittance operations for payment processing functions - Essay Example The agency shall also be in charge of customer service center and it should be equipped with a live customer phone number and interactive internet site for enabling the customer to request for service, bill questions, and provide solutions to issues that occur like emergencies. The customer center should operate for 24 hours having at least one personnel all the time. In case of emergency the customer service should have communicated directly to the municipality. The agency should ensure that the bill is provided to the customer within two working days after getting the billing data from the municipality. The agency should also give the municipality a payment verification at the last day of reporting phase. The reporting cycle is based on the calendar days, the first day will be the date that the municipality will provide the data. Based on the delivery, the agency will be in charge of reconciling all the account billings on a monthly basis and give proper reports to the municipality. The report should contain the number of financial transactions throughout the week and the amounts of currency they represent. Including this information, is the list of computer hardware and software that is used to process the products of the municipality. The contractual terms will be on a yearly basis and renewable up to five years but the municipality retains the right not to renew after the second year if the terms are breached. The agency is entitled to a 2% of the total revenue as a compensation for their services. The low performance of the agency will be penalized on up to 25% of their fee, including other professional misconduct. Excellent performance will receive an extra 2%of the gross revenue or a lump sum bonus of about fifty thousand dollars to be decided by the company. The preparation for the proposal shall involve bids in sealed envelopes or packages which are addressed to the specific office
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Library Science Essay An integrated library system (ILS), also known as a library management system (LMS), is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. An ILS usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials) cataloging (classifying and indexing materials) circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back) serials (tracking magazine and newspaper holdings) the OPAC (public interface for users) Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. Smaller libraries, such as those in private homes or non-profit organizations (like churches or synagogues, for instance), often forgo the expense and maintenance required to run an ILS, and instead use a library computer system.  Contents [hide] 1 History 1. 1 Pre-computerization 1. 2 1960s: the influence of computer technologies 1. 3 1970s-1980s: the early integrated library system 1. 4 1990s-2000s: the growth of the Internet 1. 5 Mid 2000s-Present: increasing costs and customer dissatisfaction 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links History Pre-computerization Prior to computerization, library tasks were performed manually and independently from one another. Selectors ordered materials with ordering slips, cataloguers manually catalogued items and indexed them with the card catalog system (in which all bibliographic data was kept on a single index card), and users signed books out manually, indicating their name on cue cards which were then kept at the circulation desk. Early mechanization came in 1936, when the University of Texas began using a punch card system to manage library circulation.  While the punch card system allowed for more efficient tracking of loans, library services were far from being integrated, and no other library task was affected by this change. 1960s: the influence of computer technologies Following this, the next big innovation came with the advent of MARC standards in the 1960s which coincided with the growth of computer technologies Ã¢â¬â library automation was born.  From this point onwards, libraries began experimenting with computers, and, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the 1970s, bibliographic services utilizing new online technology and the shared MARC vocabulary entered the market; these included OCLC (1967), Research Libraries Group (which has since merged with OCLC), and Washington Library Network (which became Western Library Network and is also now part of OCLC).  1970s-1980s: the early integrated library system Screenshot of a Dynix menu. The 1970s can be characterized by improvements in computer storage as well as in telecommunications.  As a result of these advances, Ã¢â¬Ëturnkey systems on microcomputers,Ã¢â¬â¢ known more commonly as integrated library systems (ILS) finally appeared. These systems included necessary hardware and software which allowed the connection of major circulation tasks, including circulation control and overdue notices.  As the technology developed, other library tasks could be accomplished through ILS as well, including acquisition, cataloguing, reservation of titles, and monitoring of serials.  1990s-2000s: the growth of the Internet With the evolution of the Internet throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, ILSs began allowing users to more actively engage with their libraries through OPACs and online web-based portals. Users could log into their library accounts to reserve or renew books, as well as authenticate themselves for access to library-subscribed online databases. Inevitably, during this time, the ILS market grew exponentially. By 2002, the ILS industry averaged sales of approximately US$500 million annually, compared to just US$50 million in 1982.  Mid 2000s-Present: increasing costs and customer dissatisfaction By the mid to late 2000s, ILS vendors had increased not only the number of services offered but also their prices, leading to some dissatisfaction among many smaller libraries. At the same time, open source ILS was in its early stages of testing. Some libraries began turning to such open source ILSs as Koha and Evergreen. Common reasons noted were to avoid vendor lock in, avoid license fees, and participate in software development. Freedom from vendors also allowed libraries to prioritize needs according to urgency, as opposed to what their vendor can offer.  Libraries which have moved to open source ILS have found that vendors are now more likely to provide quality service in order to continue a partnership since they no longer have the power of owning the ILS software and tying down libraries to strict contracts.  This has been the case with the SCLENDS consortium. Following the success of Evergreen for the Georgia PINES library consortium, the South Carolina State Library along with some local public libraries formed the SCLENDS consortium in order to share resources and to take advantage of the open source nature of the Evergreen ILS to meet their specific needs.  By October 2011, just 2 years after SCLENDS began operations, 13 public library systems across 15 counties had already joined the consortium, in addition to the South Carolina State Library. Librarytechnology. org does an annual survey of over 2,400 libraries and noted in 2008 2% of those surveyed used open source ILS, in 2009 the number increased to 8%, in 2010 12%, and in 2011 11%  of the libraries polled had adopted open source ILSs. Examples Open-source Evergreen Greenstone Invenio Koha Kuali OLE NewGenLib PhpMyBibli OpenBiblioÃ'Å½ VuFind Proprietary Aleph from Ex Libris Innovative Interfaces LibraryÃ¢â¬ ¢Solution, LibraryÃ¢â¬ ¢Solution for Schools, and CARLÃ¢â¬ ¢X from The Library Corporation LibraryWorld NOSA Qulto System SirsiDynix, SymphonyÃ¢â¬âcurrent version and UnicornÃ¢â¬âa legacy system. SydneyPLUS International Capita Alto formerly Talis Alto (UK and Ireland) Virtua, former VTLS, from VTLS Inc. Voyager from former company Endeavor Information Systems, later acquired by Ex Libris (Polish) MOL, Patron and MOLIK interface created for children (Polish) SOWA, SOWA2, SOWA2/MARC21, SOWA2/MARC21/SQLÃ'Å½ Legacy NOTIS Dynix See also Library and information science portal Library computer system OPAC List of next-generation catalogs History of Library Automation References ^ Adamson, Veronica, et al. (2008). JISC SCONUL Library Management Systems Study PDF (1 MB). Sheffield, UK: Sero Consulting. p. 51. Retrieved on 21 January 2009. a Library Management System (LMS or ILS Integrated Library System in US parlance). Some useful library automation software are: KOHA ,Grennstone . LIBsis, and granthlaya. Tennant, Roy (16 April 2008). Picking When to Jump, Part 2. Library Journal. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 20 January 2009. Across the pond they use the term library management systems (LMS) for what we call the integrated library system (ILS). ^ a b Wallace, Patricia M. (1991). Gary M. Pitkin. ed. Library Systems Migration: An Introduction. Westport, CT: Meckler. p. 3. ISBN 0-88736-738-0. ^ a b c Wallace, Patricia M. (1991). Gary M. Pitkin. ed. Library Systems Migration: An Introduction. Westport, CT: Meckler. p. 4. ISBN 0-88736-738-0. ^ a b Kochtanek, Thomas R. (2002). 1 The Evolution of LIS and Enabling Technologies. Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. p. 4. ISBN 1-59158-018-8. ^ Kochtanek, Thomas R. (2002). 1 The Evolution of LIS and Enabling Technologies. Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. p. 5. ISBN 1-59158-018-8. ^ a b c Hamby, R. ; McBride, R. , Lundberg, M. (2011, Oct. ). South CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s SCLENDS optimizing libraries, transforming lending. Computers in Libraries. 8 31: 6Ã¢â¬â10. ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2008. pl ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2009. pl ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2010. pl ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2011. pl Further reading Olson, N. (2010). Taken for Granted The Construction of Order in the Process of Library Management System Decision Making (Vol. 45). Goteborg / Boras: Valfrid publishing.  Rubin, Richard E. Foundations of Library and Information Science. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. , 2004. External links MARC Records, Systems and Tools : Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress Higher Education Library Technology,(HELibTech) a wiki supported by SCONUL (Society of College National and University Libraries) that covers many aspects of library technology and lists technologies in use in UK Higher Education Key resources in the field of Library Automation Categories: Library automationÃ'Å½
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
How Medical Marijuana Works Essay Marijuana or cannabis is well known for a recreational drug used by younger school age children as well as older Adults. To some people, the idea of medical marijuana is nothing more than an excuse to get the high card. Most school-age children use marijuana because of peer pressure from their classmates or buddies in general. Most older adults have turned to marijuana due to stress in their everyday life. The medical benefits of medical cannabis offer it patients are, swept completely under the rug. In fact, many individuals do not know that cannabis served as a well-established medical treatment until it was criminalized in 1937. Medical marijuana should be legalized in all fifty states. The number of people that suffer is in the millions. Americans that suffer from chronic pain is 100 million, Diabetes is 25.8 million, Heart disease 16.3 million, Strokes 7 million and Cancer patients 11.9 million, the total of American that suffer are 161 million. Why is the government being so inhuman and not legalizing marijuana? There are 29 states that have legalized Medical Marijuana. They are Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Washington DC, and West Virginia. All these states have approved Medical Marijuana. Legal weed created 18, 005 full-time jobs and added about $2.4 billion to the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s economy last year in Colorado. The 15 Langley 2 percent special excise tax on marijuana sales in ArizonaÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization proposal generate over $114 million in new tax revenue in 2016 and 2017. Maine has improved their state revenue by $69 million. Nevada has shown 161 thousand new jobs, and 89 million dollars increase in their state revenue. Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t all the state legalize medical marijuana to help build their budgets so everyone can benefit? In the state of Oklahoma, schools budget could increase, so teachers could get a well-deserved salary. College and Universities could have better learning material as well as the instructors, Professors, and staff could have better salaries and benefits. In the United States, there is 76 % of doctors that are for medical marijuana, 14 % that would use it if it was legal, but would not vote for it, and 10% that donÃ¢â¬â¢t care. The 10% is for prescription drugs. A young doctor diagnosed a 5year old child with Dravet Syndrome and she was having more than 300 Grand Mal Seizures a week. This doctor gave this child medical marijuana as treatment and she now has 4 to 6 seizures a month. A gentleman was having Migraines that would last up to two weeks at a time, was giving medical marijuana and now has a migraine once a month at the most. With the benefits of medical Marijuana, all states should legalize marijuana. The health benefits to patients as well as the benefit to the budgets of each state. Medical Marijuana has proven to help treat Migraines, slow down the growth of tumors, relieve the pain of Chronic diseases, Prevent AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, help with ADD, and ADHD, relieve PMS, calm patients that have TouretteÃ¢â¬â¢s and OCD.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Examining The Varied Heritage Of Indian Culture Cultural Studies Essay One thing in which India faces no competition is its varied culture and heritage. The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, its unique geography and the absorption of customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbors as well as by preserving its ancient heritages, which were formed during the Indus Valley Civilization and evolved further during the Vedic age, rise and decline of Buddhism, Golden age, Muslim conquests and European colonization. Indias great diversity of cultural practices, languages, customs, and traditions are examples of this unique co-mingling over the past five millennia. At all levels India has added great number of languages in to the diverse cultures and traditions. There were 1000 (if you count regional dialects and regional words) languages are spoken by Indians Altogether, but unfortunately now there are 415 living languages in India. The Constitution of India has stipulated the national language Hindi and English to be the two official languages of communication for the Union Government. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people. India is the birth place of Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the worlds third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with around 1.4 billion followers India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays in India, the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In addition, many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga puja, Holi, Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals, such as Sankranthi, Pongal and Onam, are also fairly popular. Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions. Notable examples include Diwali which celebrated by Hindus, Sikhs and Jains and Buddh Purnima which is celebrated by Buddhists and Hindus. Islamic festivals, such Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Ramadan, are celebrated by Muslims across India. Well different religions have unlike practices, rituals and all but in these entire dissimilarities one thing common is the way they greet each. Namaskar or Namaskaram is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the India. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than namastÃ © but both express deep respect. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus, Jains and Buddhists, sikhs and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. In Indian and Nepali culture, the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. However, the same hands folded gesture is made wordlessly upon departure. In yoga, namastÃ © is said to mean The light in me honors the light in you, taken literally, it means I bow to you Food is an important part of Indian culture, playing a role in everyday life as well as in festivals. In many families, everyday meals are sit-down affairs consisting of two to three main course dishes, varied accompaniments such as chutneys and pickles, carbohydrate staples such as rice and roti (bread), as well as desserts. Food is not just important for an Indian family by ways of eating, but it is also taken as a sort of socializing, getting together with a family of many. Indian cuisine varies from region to region, Generally, Indian cuisine can be split into four categories: North, South, East, and West Indian. Despite this diversity, some unifying threads emerge. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation, and are used to enhance the flavor of a dish and create unique flavors and aromas. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history, such as the Persians, Mughals, and European powers. Different religions, languages, festivals, cuisine and now different clothing. Traditional Indian clothing for women is the saris and also Ghaghra Cholis (Lehengas). For men, traditional clothes are the Dhoti, pancha veshti or Kurta. Bombay, also known as Mumbai, is one of Indias fashion capitals. In some village parts of India, traditional clothing mostly will be wornBindi is part of the womens make-up. Traditionally, the red bindi (or sindhur) was worn only by the married Hindu women, but now it has become a part of womens fashion As far as Indian art is concerned, music and dance from an integral part of Indian arts. The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical musicIndian dance and music considered to be just another form of entertainment, tracesÃ its origins back several thousands of years. Music is the language of emotion and is an important part of the Indian culture. Music and dance areÃ languagesÃ by themselves, capable of expressing subtle thoughts and refined ideas. Few of the Indian dance forms are Baratnatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Manipuri, odissi, Mohiniattam and many more.While naturally evolving with the dynamic forces of history and creative influence of great masters, these traditions have maintained the integrity of their fundamentalÃ heritage.Ã
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Ape-Like Mr. Hyde in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Ã Ã Throughout The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dr. Henry Jekyll underwent periods of transformation, transcendence and transgression. During these periods where Dr. Jekyll was Mr. Hyde, Hyde had an impact on several of the characters' lives inhabiting Stevenson's tale. In imagining Hyde, readers are struck by a great sense of who Hyde is with surprisingly little in the way of physical description. We are reminded of the dwarf-like stature and the impression of deformity Hyde leaves upon his onlookers. We are given few other clues, but one trait of Hyde's is almost a certainty-- Hyde possesses simian characteristics. Ã After Utterson hears Enfeild's story of Mr. Hyde running over a child like a "Juggernaut," Utterson decides to stalk Mr. Hyde (Stevenson 3). After running into Mr. Hyde, Utterson is struck that "the man seems hardly human!/Something troglodytic" (Stevenson 10). According to the American Heritage Dictionary, troglodytic can be interpreted as "a member of a fabulous or prehistoric race of people ...
Hotelling The Wave of the Future Throughout the years technology has made huge impacts on the way business conducts itself. From the internet and cellular technology to laptops, communication has become accessible wherever one might be. Those who have benefited most from such technology are those who spend most of their time out of the office. However, the question is this: If technology enables employees to communicate and accomplish the tasks necessary to complete oneÃ¢â¬â¢s work outside the workplace, then why arenÃ¢â¬â¢t corporations jumping at the idea? Corporations are always looking at ways to cut costs. Having an employee work from home reduces office overhead. Corporations need to attain a level of culture that can only be absorbed when working at the business place. So how can corporations cut office overhead costs while trying to maintain growth, information sharing and a level of culture? Is it possible to implement such system? Accountants, who are not known for their ingenious technologica l creations, have contributed to technology by implementing a system where information sharing is enhanced and space is utilized more efficiently. For the most part Ã¢â¬ËhotellingÃ¢â¬â¢ is more of a cost saving technique than a technological advance. However, the technology used, ensures that information sharing is not reduced or lost due to space utilization. Hotelling may be the new wave of the future, however communicating this to employees may be more difficult than anticipated because of some of the social elements that will be disrupted by installing the new system. Hotelling does have its downfalls, but the benefits certainly exceed the costs for any organization willing to install such a system. With the increase of communication devices such as intranets, cell phones, laptops, modems, emails, and voicemails, accountants have more mobility as to where they can do their work. This is extremely beneficial to those accountants who spend most of their time at the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace. Most of their larger clients populate the downtown core of major cities. Therefore, for most accounting practices, it is logical to have their main offices also situated in the downtown core. The big issue revolving the practice is the fact that being situated downtown gets extremely expensive, especially for a line of business where the employees occupy the office less than half of the time.